Running HTC Jobs Using Docker Containers
Linux containers are a way to build a self-contained environment that includes software, libraries, and other tools. This guide shows how to submit jobs that use Docker containers.
Typically, software in CHTC jobs is installed or compiled locally by individual users and then brought along to each job, either using the default file transfer or our SQUID web server. However, another option is to use a container system, where the software is installed in a container image. Using a container to handle software can be advantageous if the software installation 1) has many dependencies, 2) requires installation to a specific location, or 3) “hard-codes” paths into the installation.
CHTC (and the OS Pool) have capabilities to access and start containers and run jobs inside them. This guide shows how to do this for Docker containers.
In order to run your job inside a Docker container, you will need to:
- Find or prepare a Docker container image for your jobs to use
- Make a few changes to your submit file
- Other testing information
1. Choose or Create a Docker Container Image
To run a Docker job, you will first need access to a Docker container image that has been built and placed onto the DockerHub website. There are two primary ways to do this.
A. Pre-existing Images
The easiest way to get a Docker container image for running a job is to use a public or pre-existing image on DockerHub. You can find images by getting an account on DockerHub and searching for the software you want to use.
An image supported by a group will be continuously updated and the versions will be indicated by “tags”. We recommend choosing a specific tag (or tags) of the container to use in CHTC.
B. Build Your Own Image
You can also build your own Docker container image and upload it to DockerHub. See this link to our guide on building containers or the Docker documentation for more information.
Simiilarly, we recommend using container tags. Importantly, whenever you make a significant change to your container, you will want to use a new tag name to ensure that your jobs are getting an updated version of the container, and not an ‘old’ version that has been cached by DockerHub or CHTC.
2. Submit File Customization
Jobs that run inside a Docker container will be almost exactly the same as “vanilla” HTCondor jobs. There are two needed customizations to the submit file: indicated that the job is a Docker job, and which Docker container to use.
A. Using a Docker Image
Start with a usual CHTC submit file like the one shown in our Hello World guide. Then, make the following two changes:
- Change the universe from “vanilla” to “docker”:
universe = docker
- Add a line to indicate which Docker image you want to use for running your job:
docker_image = user_name/image_name:tag
When your job starts, HTCondor will pull the indicated image from DockerHub, and use it to run your job.
B. Executable and Input Files
Other pieces of the job (your executable and input files) should be just like a non-Docker job submission; the only change may be that your executable no longer needs to install or unpack your software, since it will already be present in the Docker container.
If you want to test your jobs, you have two options:
- We have a guide on exploring and testing Docker containers on your own computer here:
- You can test a container interactively in CHTC by using a normal Docker job submit file and using the
interactive flag with
[alice@submit]$ condor_submit -i docker.sub
This should start a session inside the indicated Docker container and connect you to it using ssh. Type
exitto end the interactive job. Note: Files generated during your interactive job with Docker will not be transfered back to the submit node. If you have a directory on
staging, you can transfer the files there instead; if you have questions about this, please contact a facilitator.